There are many types of Ocean Pollution. First we will talk about oil pollution. Oil pollution is oil in the oceans that come from a variety of sources. They are offshore drilling accidents, tanker accidents, natural seeps, and many more. The major contributor to oil pollution is what humans throw away like vegetable oil and other household items. Did you know that only 20% ocean the pollution occurs on water? 80% of ocean pollution comes from land.
Oil pollution kills many marine animals and plants. Marine plants can suffocate from the oil covering them. A lot of coral reefs are already affected by this. Marine animals who eat these plants might die or the oil will build up in their bodies. It can also affect birds that eat fish that have oil in their bodies. Also, if they dive into oil, it will weigh them down so they can't fly.
Now let's talk about chemical pollution. Chemical pollution is the chemicals humans dump that are in the ocean. Some of it comes from farms and gardens. When people put pesticides and fertilizers on the plants, rain can wash these chemicals into nearby rivers and lakes. It will eventually end up in the ocean, harming marine life. This can also lead to eutrophication. Eutrophication takes the oxygen out of the water and as a result, creates areas in the ocean plants and fish can't grow. These areas are called dead zones. This happens because the fertilizers make algae grow and die faster. Sometimes factories also dump harmful chemicals in rivers and lakes. Though in 1972, the United States made a law that helped stop most of the factories from dumping chemicals into rivers and lakes. The law is called the Clean Water Act.
Now we will talk about plastic in the oceans. You might think plastic can't harm anyone. If you do, you are wrong. Many marine animals mistake plastic for food and try to eat them. The plastic will choke and kill them. If animals do manage to eat it, they will eventually die because they can't digest the plastic. Some of the species that are victims of plastic pollution are sea turtles and pelicans.
Another source of ocean pollution is sewage. Sewage is the things humans throw in the drains and sewers. It includes human waste and other types of garbage. Did you know that 2 million tons of human waste is dumped in the waters worldwide, per day? Sewage only became a major problem in the past 200 years because in earlier times our garbage was biodegrable, unlike the modern items we use now. Human and animal waste (a type of sewage) has been increasing because our current world population is very high compared to our past ones. Also, our world population is going to increase even more in the years to come. Some sewage has took some unepected forms. People eat lots and lots of pills each year. Animals are also fed drugs that will keep them healthy. Small amounts of these turn up in animal and human waste that end up in the waters worldwide. Even though scientists are not sure how much these drugs will affect humans, it has been shown to kill marine plants.